Status of Agriculture in Odisha

Odisha is slowly moving towards production of high value crops. The share of cropped area under vegetables, fruits, oil seeds, pulses has increased from 42.37% in 2014-15 to 43.79% in 2018-19. There has been remarkable increase in production of livestock products like milk, egg and meat. The value of output of vegetables, fruits and livestock products also increased from Rs 37204 crore in 2015-16 to Rs 43246 crore in 2017-18. Irrigation is vital for sustained agriculture growth. About 61 lakh ha of irrigation potential was created in 2018-19 compared to 51.8 lakh ha in 2014-15.

Agriculture and allied sector continues to be important for Odisha contributing 18.9% to the State’s Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018-19. The sector is also a major source of livelihood for majority of the population. As per latest available estimates for 2017-18, 48.8% of worker population in the State is engaged in the agriculture sector. Further, the output of the sector forms critical inputs to various agro-based industries, adding to the significance of the sector in Odisha’s economy.

Odisha’s susceptibility to natural disasters leads to year-on-year fluctuations in cropping. A drought and pest attack in 2017 impacted crop production in the State. With a good monsoon in 2018, the sectors’ output is estimated to bounce back and grow at 8.3% in 2018-19. With the aim of ensuring sustainability of the sector, the government has been pushing for diversification into horticulture and organic farming. These crops are also more resistant to climatic conditions and natural disasters and can help in keeping the sector buoyant during such years. Millet Mission has been launched in the State with a view to promote climate resilient crops like Ragi and other minor millets in tribal pockets of Odisha. These would not only supplement the sustainability but also bring in nutritional security as well. Input usage in the state has been rising over the years and it has continued to do so during the last year. Investments in irrigation, a major input for agriculture have increased significantly. Between 2007-08 and 2017-18, investment in irrigation has grown from INR 2,076 crores to INR 9,216 crores annually. There is scope for further enhancements of investments in irrigation. Water tables in Odisha are within a reach of few metres below the surface, which gives an opportunity to further address water availability through improved basic infrastructure.

While the crops sub-sector was impacted by natural conditions, the relative resilience of allied sectors to the frequent natural calamities was prominent. The years 2017-18 and 2018-19 shown strong real growth in these allied activities, especially livestock rearing and fisheries. Production of meat, milk, egg and fishes continued to witness growth during the last year. Advance estimates indicate that livestock and fisheries will be the fastest growing sub-sectors of 2018-19, i.e., growing at a rate of 11.7% each.

With majority population live in rural areas, this sector’s development is strongly associated with two elements like end poverty and ease of living. As per Census 2011, over 83% of Odisha’s population reside in rural areas. Continuous efforts are being undertaken to uplift the rural areas through various poverty alleviation schemes and provide the population with suitable housing and basic services. These efforts have successfully reduced rural poverty in Odisha by over 25 percentage points between 2004-05 and 2011-12, much higher than the national reduction of 16 percentage points in rural poverty.


State’s Agriculture

The climate of the State is tropical, characterized by high temperature, high humidity, medium to high rainfall and mild winters. The normal annual rainfall is 1,451.2 mm of which the South-West monsoon contributes about 80 percent. From the physiographic point of view, the State has been divided into four zones, viz (i) the Northern Plateau, (ii) the Eastern Ghat Zone, (iii) the Central Table Land, and (iv) the Coastal Zone. On the basis of climate, soil, rainfall and topography, the State has been delineated into ten Agro Climatic Zones. The State’s Agriculture Sector frequently suffers from natural calamities like cyclones, droughts and flash floods which substantially affect production and productivity of agriculture.


Consumption of Fertilizer


Source: Agricultural Statistics and Economic Survey