Various sources are responsible for air pollution. The natural sources are forest fires, volcanic eruptions, bacterial decomposition of organic matters etc. Operation of industrial processes, burning of fuel for heating and cooking in households, plying of fuel-driven vehicles, use of explosives for mining and in warfare etc are anthropogenic sources of air pollution. The air pollutants may be either Primary or Secondary.

The primary pollutants are those which are directly released into the atmosphere and the secondary pollutants are products of atmospheric reactions of the main primary pollutants. Products of combustion – both complete and incomplete – of fossil fuels are the main primary pollutants released into the atmosphere. These include Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and unburnt hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are products of oxidation of carbon. Sulphur dioxide comes from the burning of sulphur which is invariably present in coal and oil. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), is the product of high temperature combustion of fuel such as the one taking place inside internal combustion engines and even, to some extent, in thermal power plats. Besides the products of combustion of fossil fuels, primary pollutants also include suspended particulate matters (SPM) generated in various activities and other gases or vapours produced in specific industrial and natural processes e.g. ammonia, chlorine, chlorofluoro carbon, solvent vapours etc. A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds like aldehydes, ketones, acids, nitrates, epoxides and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) present in the atmosphere in extremely low quantities, are considered as secondary pollutants. The well known meteorological phenomena associated with air pollution – the Acid Rain and the Photochemical Smog formation – are attributed to secondary pollutants formed atmospheric reactions.

Air pollution has become very serious in urban areas, mainly due to automobile exhausts, industrial emissions and construction works.

The State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) is entrusted with the direct implementation of the provisions of the Air Act, 1981 to prevent, control and abate air pollution in the State. National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring network was initiated by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in 1984. In Odisha; 8 NAAQM stations have been established in different phases. Monitoring is being conducted in all eight stations. Board has also established a State Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network (SAAQM). At present SAAQM network has 8 monitoring stations. The monitoring stations have been located in different areas viz. Residential or rural as well as commercial.





Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1990)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

172

10.90

8.50

Talcher (FCI Township)

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

NA

NA

NA

Jaykaypur

NA

NA

NA

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

126

8.10

4.90

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

NA

NA

NA

Rayagada

NA

NA

NA

Nalco

NA

NA

NA

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1992)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

150

19.30

10.80

Talcher (FCI Township)

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

276

19.80

35.80

Jaykaypur

159

18.60

28.70

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

105

17.90

7.90

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

NA

NA

NA

Rayagada

95

9.10

15.80

Nalco

NA

NA

NA

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1993)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

266

19.30

10.50

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

316

37.20

39.40

Jaykaypur

188

16.70

26.90

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

176

21.10

6.30

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

296

49.20

43.00

Rayagada

135

11.80

16.30

Nalco

191

20.00

5.80

Source- CPCB Website


 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1994)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

181

33.20

18.50

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

270

34.90

39.40

Jaykaypur

198

12.00

17.20

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Inadequate Data

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

325

44.50

44.80

Rayagada

153

10.00

20.70

Nalco

179

15.00

16.80

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1995)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

177

17.00

14.40

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

289

37.30

37.80

Jaykaypur

164

18.40

33.20

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

157

21.20

12.30

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

316

41.30

39.50

Rayagada

153

17.90

25.40

Nalco

162

0.00

0.00

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1996)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

344

20.50

16.30

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

286

28.10

22.80

Jaykaypur

171

14.60

32.60

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

217

15.50

11.90

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

247

22.80

10.20

Rayagada

113

11.70

22.10

Nalco

204

14.10

15.50

Source- CPCB Website


Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1997)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

150

11.00

14.90

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

159

25.10

25.70

Jaykaypur

115

14.30

19.50

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

106

20.90

21.40

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

155

28.90

19.60

Rayagada

85

11.40

15.00

Nalco

97

12.70

9.80

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-1998)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

179

10.10

13.40

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

192

32.00

36.10

Jaykaypur

149

15.50

22.80

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

146

10.70

9.80

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

154

35.50

27.60

Rayagada

120

9.50

16.40

Nalco

105

6.90

9.70

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-2000)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

145

5.60

19.70

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

153

16.60

21.90

Jaykaypur

122

14.50

24.90

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

161

5.60

29.00

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

135

14.60

14.70

Rayagada

98

10.50

17.10

Nalco

99

6.30

22.10

Source- CPCB Website


 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-2001)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

179

6.80

30.60

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

189

9.30

19.50

Jaykaypur

151

12.50

20.60

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

187

11.00

26.00

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

182

9.40

12.80

Rayagada

123

9.30

14.70

Nalco

127

6.20

23.10

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-2002)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

184

9.70

26.60

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

188

7.60

14.00

Jaykaypur

138

10.90

18.40

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

207

16.70

17.70

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

169

7.10

10.70

Rayagada

116

8.00

12.60

Nalco

124

14.30

14.60

Source- CPCB Website

 

 

Air Quality in Orissa (Year-2003)

Industrial

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Talcher (TTPS)

154

6.30

21.90

Talcher (FCI Township)

NA

NA

NA

Rourkela (Municipality Office)

150

4.90

10.00

Jaykaypur

119

4.80

9.40

Residential

Location

SPM

SO2

NOX

Angul Township, NALCO

164

6.00

12.80

Rourkela (Sonaparbat)

180

4.50

6.60

Rayagada

89

3.60

7.20

Nalco

110

3.10

15.50

Source- CPCB Website












Source: CPCB and Odisha SPCB