Solid waste management is an integral part of the Environmental Management of each city. Due to rapid growth of urban population, as well as constraint in resources, the management of solid waste poses a difficult and complex problem for the society and its improper management gravely affects the public health and degrades environment. In Indian scenario, the growth of population is about 50 % in 2001 as compared to that in 1947. Accordingly waste generation increases from 0.295 Kg/capita/day in 1947 to 0.56 Kg/capita/day in 2001. Total waste generated per year comes to 55.3 million ton/year in 2001 as compared to 6 million ton/year in 1947. Municipality solid waste in positively related to variation in per capita income and with population size. A survey estimates highest generation of solid waste in US (2.4 Kg/capita/day).

          The general composition of solid waste being generated from the cities of India is 40.15 % vegetables & twigs, 3.8% glass, 0.8 % paper, 0.62% plastic, 0.44 ceramics, 0.64% metals, 41.81% sand & grit and others 11.73%.

       The per capita generation of solid waste in Rourkela and Puri Municipality of Orissa is 0.5 Kg/day and 0.3 to 0.5 Kg/day respectively. The most common way of treating solid waste in Orissa is land filling. Awareness on Solid Waste management among the people and various Institutions, Government Organisations and non-government Organisations are working on it. In Puri Municipality there exists a mechanized Bio-compost plant for treatment of garbage of 100 TPD capacity.

      Solid waste from industrial activities is one of the major environmental concern. About 25 million tons of solid waste is being generated from industrial sectors in the state. It includes fly ash & bottom ash from thermal power plants, chemical slags from Iron 7 Steel plants and red mud from Aluminium industries. Some of the wastes are designated as hazardous because of their composition and hazard potential. About 80000 MT/annum of hazardous waste being generated in the state. In the mining sectors, the major solid waste is the overburden waste.


STATUS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF THE STATE ODISHA

Year

City

Municipal Solid
Waste Generation
(Tonnes/day)

Municipal Solid
Waste Per Capita
(Kg/day)

No. of
Landfill Area

No. of Safai
Karamchari

2000

Cuttak

325

0.808

-

-

2000

Rourkela

60

0.346

-

-

2000

Sambalpur

34

0.259

-

-

2000

Balasore

2.6

0.30

-

-

2001

Puri

79

0.3 to 0.5

1

484


Ward Wise Waste Generation in Bhubaneswar City

Ward No

Population Density (Persons / residential km2)

Waste Generated (t/d)

1991

1999

1991

1999

  1.  

2201

6075

0.55

3.04

  1.  

3784

10444

0.95

5.22

  1.  

10413

28739

2.60

14.37

  1.  

6652

18360

1.66

9.18

  1.  

18994

23552

4.75

11.78

  1.  

21674

39013

5.42

19.51

  1.  

15934

28680

3.98

14.34

  1.  

35118

43546

8.78

21.77

  1.  

27099

33603

6.77

16.80

  1.  

23741

29439

5.94

14.72

  1.  

30514

37837

7.63

18.92

  1.  

17335

21496

4.33

10.75

  1.  

10963

13594

2.74

6.80

  1.  

10862

19552

2.72

9.78

  1.  

33277

41264

8.32

20.63

  1.  

15892

28605

3.97

14.30

  1.  

18341

33013

4.59

16.51

  1.  

1556

4294

0.39

2.15

  1.  

2211

6104

0.55

3.05

  1.  

7111

12801

1.78

6.40

  1.  

16963

21034

4.24

10.52

  1.  

16494

20452

4.12

10.23

  1.  

26881

33332

6.72

16.67

  1.  

16817

30271

4.20

15.14

  1.  

10056

18100

2.51

9.05

  1.  

8947

11095

2.24

5.55

  1.  

7001

8681

1.75

4.34

  1.  

21631

26822

5.41

13.41

  1.  

20449

25357

5.11

12.68

  1.  

12278

15224

3.07

7.61

Total

 

117.79

345.22


 

 Solid Waste Collected and Uncollected in Bhubaneswar (Year-1999)

 

Ward No.

Waste Generated (t/d)

Collection Centre

Volume (m3)

Waste Collected (t/d)

Waste in Collected (t/d) {B-E}

% of Waste Uncollected

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

(F)

(G)

1.        

3.04

No

6

2.37

0.67

21.98

2.        

5.22

No

0

0

5.22

100.00

3.        

14.37

No

8

3.16

11.21

78.01

4.        

9.18

No

6

2.37

6.81

74.18

5.        

11.78

No

24

9.48

2.30

19.50

6.        

19.51

No

6

2.37

17.14

87.85

7.        

14.34

No

6

2.37

11.97

83.47

8.        

21.77

No

8

3.16

18.61

85.49

9.        

16.80

1

18

7.11

9.69

57.68

10.    

14.72

1

22

8.69

6.03

40.96

11.    

18.92

No

22

8.69

10.23

54.07

12.    

10.75

1

6

2.37

8.38

77.95

13.    

6.80

1

10

3.95

2.85

41.89

14.    

9.78

No

10

3.95

5.83

59.59

15.    

20.63

No

6

2.37

18.26

88.51

16.    

14.30

No

6

2.37

11.93

83.43

17.    

16.51

No

6

2.37

14.14

85.64

18.    

2.15

No

3

1.185

0.96

44.81

19.    

3.05

No

3

1.185

1.87

61.17

20.    

6.40

No

12

4.74

1.66

25.94

21.    

10.52

1

12

4.74

5.78

54.93

22.    

10.23

2

34

9.48

0.75

7.30

23.    

16.67

1

12

4.74

11.93

71.56

24.    

15.14

1

6

2.37

12.77

84.34

25.    

9.05

No

6

2.37

6.68

73.81

26.    

5.55

1

12

4.74

0.81

14.56

27.    

4.34

No

18

3.95

0.39

9.00

28.    

13.41

1

6

2.37

11.04

82.33

29.    

12.68

No

8

3.16

9.52

75.08

30.    

7.61

No

6

2.37

5.24

68.86

Total

345.22

11

308

114.55

230.67

1813.89

  

Quantity of Recyclable Solid Waste Collected in Bhubaneswar

 Sl. No.

Types

Total Quantity (TPM)

1.        

Metal Scrap

250-300

2.        

Glass

100-150

3.        

Plastic/Polythene

40-45

4.        

Waste Paper/ Card Board

80-100

5.        

New Prints

16

6.        

Miscellaneous

----

Solid Waste Generation of Puri During – 2001

 Population (2001)

1,57,776

Floating Population Daily Average

30,000 to 40,000

During Car Festival

7 to 8 lakh

Slum Pockets

32

No. of Wards

30

Waste Generation kg/capita/day

0.3 to 0.5

Garbage Generated / day

79 MT

Garbage Collected / day

50 MT

Sweepers

484

 

Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics of Puri

 MSW Characteristics

By volume in %

Paper

2.0

Polythene Plastic

2.8

Green Leaves, vegetables

15.4

Dry leaves, gross wood, cotton rags, coir etc.

14.0

Cow dung, animal excreta

2.5

Green coconut shell

4.0

Ash, silt, sand etc.

44.0

Debris

14.5

Glass

0.3

Leather waste

0.3

Metal scrap

0.2

 

 

Source: OSPCB and Orissa Review